嘉納治五郎と100年レガシー

Prof. Kano lived in a transformational era of Japan's history during a ‘modernisation’ phase after the Meiji Restoration. Kano dedicated his life to the promotion of a holistic development of human beings through education and sport. The father of the Olympic Movement, Baron de Coubertin, lived in the same era as Kano and he was also committed to building a peaceful society through the Olympic Movement.

YearAgeJigoro Kano - ActivitiesOlymipc Movement
1850-Dr William Penny Brooke organised the first Wenlock Olympian Games in Much Wenlock, Shropshire, UK
1859-Evangelis Zappas held the Olympic Games in Athens
18600Born in December 10 (October 28 in lunar calendar) in Mikage-mura, Settsu-koku (currently Mikage-cho, Higashi Nada-ku, Kobe, Hyogo)The Wenlock Olympian Society formed
18611
18622
186331 January - Birth of Baron Pierre de Coubertin, in Paris
18644
18655
18666Studied the Chinese classics and calligraphy under the painter Chikuun Yamamoto and Dr. Yamagishi (until Kano moved to Tokyo) National Olympian Association formed in Liverpool
18677
18688
18699Mother passed away
187010Moved to Tokyo with his father and started studying Chinese classics2nd Zappas Olympics held in Athens
187111Studied calligraphy at Seitatsu-Shojuku
187212Studied English literature at Sansya-Gakusha
187313Studied English, German, and mathmatics at Ikuei-Gijyuku
187414Entered into the National Foreign Launguage School and studied English and other subjects
187515Graduated from the National Foreign Launguage School (current Tokyo University of Foreign Studies) and entered the National Kaisei School (Tokyo Imperial University, current University of Tokyo) 3rd Zappas Olympics held in Athens
187616
187717Learn Jujitsu from Master Hachinosuke Fukuda of Tenjin Shinyo-ryu
187818Studied the Chinese classics at Nisho Gakusha (current Nishogakusha University)
187919
188020Pierre de Coubertin graduated from l'école Saint-Ignace, Paris
188121Graduated from Department of Political Science and Economics of the Faculty of Literature of Tokyo Imperial University and entered the selected subjecs of Moral Philosophy (Dogi) and the Aesthetics (graduated in the following year)
188222Became a lecturer at Gakushuin (royal dedicated school)
Established Kodokan Judo Founded "Kano Juku", "Kodokan (Kōdōkan)" at Eïshôji, Inari-cho and "Kôbunkan" in Minami-Jinbo-cho
Pierre de Coubertin founded Swordplay (Kenjutsu/fencing) Club
188323Opned Judojo at Kôbunkan and Gakushuin
Received his full mastership in Kitō-ryu Jujutsu
Pierre de Coubertin study trip to UK on the education sytem in the UK
188424Became Professor of Economics department at Komaba Agricultural College (current Tokyo University of Agriculture)
188525Became Trustees and Professor for Gakushuin
188626Appointed as the Vice-Chancellor of Gakushuin
Opened Kano Juku for children
188727Kodokan "Ju-no-Kata (Forms of gentleness, 柔の形)" and "Katame-no-Kata (Forms of grappling, 固の形)" formalisedPierre de Coubertin publsihed an article on the British college and university in Frédéric Le Play’s magazine La Réforme Sociale.
188828Co-published with Thomas Lindsay, Jujutsu The Old Samurai Art of Fighting Without Weapons Pierre de Coubertin founded the "Comité pour la propagande des exercises physiques dans l’ éducation" [Committee for the propagandaof physical excercise in the education] and published L’Education en Angleterre [The Education in England].
4th Zappas Olympics held in Athens
188929Published Jujitsu and its Origin
Lectured on Kodokan Judo and its educational values at the Imperical Japan Education Forum
Aug - European tour, visited Paris and Berlin via Shanghai
June - Coubertin planned the conference and the event around gymnastic and sport exercise at the World Exhibition
Sept - Coubertin visited United States for attending a meeting on sprot education in Boston
L'Education anglaise en France [The English Education in France] was published
189030Visited Berlin, Vienna, Copenhagen, Stockholm, Amsterdam and London Oct - Coubertin invited to the Much Wenlock Olympian Games
189131Jan - Returned to Japan via Cairo
Aug - Married
Appointed to the Ministry of Education Councilor and the principal of Fifth Junior High School (current Kumamoto University, until 1893.1); opened "Zuiho-kan (瑞邦館)", Judo hall, and taught Judo
189232Nov - Coubertin mentioned his plan of supporting the establishment of an international sport events by reintroducing the Olympic Games.
189333June - Principal of First Junior High School (until September)

高等師範学校長在職期間

Sept - Principal of Higher Nomal School (Koto-Shihan-Gakko) Kodokan moved to Tomisaka-cho, Koishikawa-Shita
Kodokan opened to women
Aug - Coubertin proposed the revival of Olympic Games at a conference on amateurism in sport
189434The Higher Normal School Sports Festival in Tokyo
Extended the length of Higher Normal School from 3 to 4-years for graduation

Birth of International Olympic Committee (IOC), Demetrius Vikelas as its first President

23 June - Coubertin organised the congress at the Sorbonne in Paris (Olympic Congress)
189535Abolished the militaristic structure at the students' domitory of Higher Normal School
Budo festivals held across Japan and Judo practice became very popular among the general public
Kodokan "Gokyo-no-Waza (five sets of techniques)" formalised
Yakumo Koizumi (or Lafcadio Hearn), who was invited by Kano to Fifth Junior High School and taught English and Latin, published Out of the East and intrduced Judo as "Jujutsu" to the West
189636Started accepting Chinese students at Kano's private schoolIntroduced "Sports Festival" at Higher Normal School to promote sport for students
Kano Juku students practiced swimming (in Aishu, Miura-gun)
1st Olympiad held in Athens
Coubertin became the 2nd IOC Presidnet (~1925)
189737July - stepped down as the Principal of Higher Normal School
Nov - reappointed to the Principal of Higher Normal School (until 1898)
2nd Olympic Congress themed on Hygiene, Education and History relating to Physical Education, in Le Havre
189838Appointed to the Director of Bureau of Normal Education, Ministry of Education (until Nov) June - stepped down as the Principal of Higher Normal School
Initiated a long distance running competition (competing for 'fit legs' in a literal sense) participated by all students at Higher Normal School
Unified Seikei-juku, Zen-ichi-juku and Zen-yô-juku with Kano Juku Established "Zôshi Kaï" and began its organ "Kokushi" (until 1903)
189939Established "Jiraku Shoïn (later Kôbun Gakuin)" for the Chinese students (in Kanda, Misaki-cho)
Swimming lesson started at Zôshi Kaï
Lectured and performed Judo at the request of the Educational Society of Japan
190040Published Japan Swimming Technique (Nihon Yu-eï-jutsu)and formed Zôshi-Kaï Swimming Technique (Zôshi-Kaï Suï0jutsu)

Women athletes participated despite the restrictions

2nd Olympiad held in Athens
190141Appointed to the Principal of Higher Normal School (until 1920)
Restructured of the student's athletic clubs with closure of "Undô-kaï" and launch of "Kôyû-kaï".
Coubertin published Notes sur l'éducation publique [Notes on the public education]
190242March - Renamed Higher Normal School to "Tokyo Higher Normal School"
Shûshin Taïshô-Senshûka (specialised in ethics and physical education) introduced at Tokyo Higher Normal School
Visited China and discussed on education with Zhang Zhidong (張之洞)
190343Opened Kodokan Ushigome brunch for foreign students
Yoshitsugu Yamashita (山下義韶), Kano's graduate, visited USA to meet President Theodore Roosevelt and taught him Judo. He toured North and South America and Europe to teach Judo
Coubertin formed the Society of Utilitarian Gymnastics, promoting sporting activity to general public
190444

Anthropology Days held at St. Louis World Fair and 4 Ainu participated the "Savage Olympics"

3rd Olympiad held in St. Louis
190545Visited China
Many Chinese students returned to the country with exasperation with the restrictions upon them by the Ministery of Education
3rd Olympic Congress themed around pedagogical themes, Sport and Physical Education, in Brussel
Published La Gymnastique utilitaire [The utalitarian gymnastics].
190646Established the Literature and Gymnastics majors, specialised in gymnastics, Judo and Kendo, at Tokyo Higher Normal School4th Olympic Congress held in Paris as the "Advisory Conference" focused on the introduction of competitions in architecture, sculpture, painting, literature and music at future Olympic Games
Interim Games held in Athens
Japan Taiiku Kai (currently Nippon Sport Science University) was requested to participated in the Olympic Games
190747Increase of Chinese students due to the special article on foreign students for higher education
Revival of Confucius Festival (known as Sekiten, 釈奠) at Taiseiden Hall of Yushima Seido (Temple)
Coubertin lanuched the Foundation of the Association for Educational Reform
190848Established the Middle Education Research Soceity and became the president
Judo and Kendo became compulsory for all students at Tokyo Higher Normal School
The School Long Distance Festival in summer and autumn also became compulsory for all the students at Tokyo Higher Normal School
4th Olympiad held in London
Coubertin requested Auguste Gérard, French Ambassador to Japan, to seek a right person for IOC in Japan
190949

IOC委員としての活動期間

Appointed to the first Asian IOC member Kôbun Gakuin closed
Foreign students participated in Track & Field and Swimming competitions at Tokyo Higher
Coubertin publsihed Une campagne de vingt-et-un ans [A Campaign of 21 years]
June - Coubertin sent a letter to Jigoro Kano for his appointment to the IOC member
191050Seïnen Shuyô-kun published
191151Launched the Japan Amateur Athletic Association (nowadays Japan Sports Association and Japanese Olympic Committee) and became the first President (until 1921)
191252

Participated the 5th Stockholm Olympics as the Chief de Mission, met Coubertin for the first time

Visited Copenhagen, Berlin and Geneva then met Coubertin in Paris - watched boxing and fencing (returned Japan, 1913.3)

Japan's first participation to the Olympic Games, led by Jigoro Kano as Chef de Mision along with 2 athletes and 1 coach

5th Olympiad held in Stockholm
1913531st National Higher School Judo Festival held
The Japan Amateur Athletic Association held 1st national athletics competition (continued up to 11th meet in 1923; since 1925 All Japan Athletic Federation (nowadays JAAF) has organised the competition
5th Olympic Congress held in Lausanne, themed on psychology and physiology of sports
Coubertin publsihed the Revue olympique [Olympic Review] with the values for the education reformation movement
191454Established Kodokan Judo-kai and published the magazine, Judo
The Japan Amateur Athletic Association held 1st national swimming competition (continued up to 9th meet; from 1924 Japan Swimming Federation became the organiser)
6th Olympic Congress held in Paris, themed on Unification of Olympic regulations and conditions for participation
Coubertin published 8 items to illustrate ideal roles of sport in the modern society at the 20th Anniversity of Olympic Games
191555The "Physical Education Department" established as 4-year course at Tokyo Higher Normal School to develop the PE teacher training programme
Kano mentioned in "Judo" about physical education for the general public and the term "Seiryoku-Zenyo (精力善用)" appeared for the frist time
Judo introduced in girls' school and Women's Normal School
IOC-related document relocated to Lausanne from Coubertin's home in Paris
191656Cancellation of 6th Olympic Games
191757Published "On physical education for the general public" in Journal of Aichi Education3rd Far Eastern Games held in Shibaura, Japan
191858Promoted to upgrade Tokyo Higher Normal School to University status
Visited Korea
Launch of Olympic Institute in Lausanne
191959Closure of Kano-juku
Jounal Judo renamed to Effective Activity (Yûkô-no-Katsudô)
192060Published Kodokan Dan-Kyu certification system (rank certification)
Jan - submitted the resignation to Principal of Tokyo Higher Normal School Feb - Shizo Kanaguri, graduate of Higher Normal School, held Four Normal School Ekiden competition (later became Hakone Ekiden)
June - Participated the 7th Olympiad in Antwerp, met Coubertin Visited Prague and other European countries as part of a tour of educational system inspection
July - Demonstration and lecture on Judo in London, visited Budokai (a Judo club) there Lecture on Judo in Los Angels

1st Olympic medal won by Japan - Ichiya Kumagai and Seiichiro Kashio won Silver medal in Tennis doubles

7th Olympiad held in Antwerp, the Olympic Oath and Olympic flag introduced for the first time
192161Feb - returned to Japan from a tour abroad
Resigned the presidency of Japan Amateur Athletic Association and became the honorary president
May - atended the 5th Far Eastern Games held in Shanghai as IOC member
7th Olympic Congress held in Lausanne, themed on modification of the Olympic programme and conditions of participation
192262Launched Kodokan Bunka-kai, announced the combined virtues of “Seiryoku-Zenyo (精力善用)” and “Jita-Kyoei (自他共栄)” Appointed to the member of House of Peers
The bill on upgrading Tokyo Higher Normal School to University status was passed at the Diet (Parliament)
Visited Taiwan
Coubertin moved to Lausanne and published Pédagogie sportive [Sport Pedagogy]
192363Lectured on "Theory of the most effectuve use of Jita-Kyoei and Seiryoku-Zenyo" at Friday
Society
Visited Karafuto
May - 6th Far Eastern Games held in Osaka
192464Appointed to the emeritus professor of Tokyo Higher Normal School
Absent from the 8th Olympiad in Paris due to bad health condition
Inaugulation of the Winter Olympic Games in Chamonix
8th Olympiad held in Paris; Katsutoshi Naito won Bronze in Wrestling
1st Japan Women Olympic Games held in Osaka
Seiichi Kishi appointed to the IOC membership
192565Japan Amateur Athletic Association became the unified organisation of sport in Japan8th Olympic Congress held in Praha, themed on sports pedagogy and Olympic regulations
Coubertin retired from the IOC President
192666Jujutsu in school physical education renamed to Judo
Formal launch of a women’s division at Kodokan Judo Institute
Became the president of Founding Committee for English Association
Visited Taiwan
192767Founded "Seiryoku-Zenyo and Jita-Kyoei Physical Education for the General Public" (Kokumin Taiiku)
Lectured across Japan on "Seiryoku-Zenyo" and "Jita-Kyoei"
Yôtaro Sugimura, Kano-juku graduate, became the Deputy Director-General of League of Nations
192868Attended the 9th Olympiad in Amsterdam
Demonstration and lectured on Judo in Italy, UK and Berlin
Visited the League of Nations Office in Geneva
Dec - Visited Shanghai
2nd Winter Olympic Games in San Moritz

Mikio Oda won the first Gold medal for Japan in Tripple Jump, followed by Zenko Tsuruta winning Gold in 200m breast stroke. Kinue Hitomi won Silver in 800m track, first medal for the Japanese women

9th Olymipad held in Amsterdam, Tourch Relay introduced
Coubertin lectured on needs of the establishment of sport education internaitonal office at Lausanne University
192969Tokyo Bunri University established, attended the reception
Attended Roomaji Kai
193070Made a congratulatory speech at the 9th Far Eastern Games held in Tokyo as IOC member9th Olympic Congress held in Berlin, themed on modification of Olympic regulations
193171Published Judo Kyohon [Judo Instruction Book]Oct - City of Tokyo dedicded a bid for the Olympics
193272

made a speech and read an invitation letter from Mr Nagata Tokyo Governor at the IOC Session

Attended the 10th Olympiad in Los Angels,
Demonstrated and lectured on Judo at University of Northern California
Visited Hawai (returned Japan in September)
3rd Winter Olymipc Games in Lake Placid

192 Japanese delegation - Takeichi Nishi (Equestrian), Chuheï Nanbu (T&F), Takatoku Yoshioka (T&F), Masaji Kiyokawa and Yoshiyuki Tsuruta (Swimming) performed well. Won 5 Gold medals by Men's Swimming

10th Olympiad in Los Angels
193373June - travelled to Vienna to attend the IOC Session. Yôtaro Sugimura was appointed to the IOC membership in this session Attended Deutsches Turnfest (German Gymnastics Festival) held in Stuttgart
Commended by French government for his service to physical education
Met Adolf Hilter in Berlin
Instructed at the Judo training session organised by Bavarian Government. Made lecture and demonstration of Judo in Vienna, London and France
Lectured at Singapore Judo coompetition (returned to Japan in November)
193474Kodokan building newly constructed in Suidobashi
April - attended the IOC Session in Athens, Michimasa Soëjima became IOC member in this session
Made lecture and demonstration of Judo at the Parnassus Literary Society in Athens and in Vienna and London. Met Carl Diem and others (returned to Japan in September)
Coubertin lectured at the 40th anniversary of Olympic revival event held at Lausanne University
193575Had discussion with Wang Cheng-T'ing (王正廷)Coubertin talked "Religio athletae" during the speech titled "Les assises philosophiques de l'Olympisme moderne [the Philosophical Foundation of the Modern Olympism]"at Berlin Radio Soëjima and Sugimura met Mussolini to seek for his support Tokyo's bid for Olympics
193676

Tokyo was awarded the 12th Olympiad in 1940 at IOC Session in Berlin

Attended the 11th Olympiad in Berlin
Visited USA, UK, Poland and Romania (returned to Japan in Nov)
4th Olympic Winter Olymipc Games in Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany 11th Olympiad in Berlin, Tourch Relay introduced

Japanese delegation's succcess particularly through Sohn Kee-Chung, Naoto Tajima (T&F) and Hideko Maehata (Swimming)

Count Henri de Baillet-Latour IOC President visited Japan
Sugimura stepped down as IOC member
193777Nov - German-Italy-Japan Anticommunist Treaty
193877The IOC Session held in Cairo confirmed the 12th Olympiad in Tokyo and Winter Games in Sapporo
Visited Greece and USA 4 May - On his way back from Vancouver, Kano died of pneumonia on the Pacific Ocean at the age of 77
July - Japan returned the right to host the 12th Olympiad of Tokyo and 5th Winter Olymipcs of Sapporo to the IOC
Reference
  • Kodokan (ed), Kano Jigoro Taïkeï [Jigoro Kano Collected Works], Vol. 13, Hon no tomo sha, 1998
  • Shigeo Shimizu, Sportsu to Kindaï Kyôiku, Fransu Taiiku Shisôshi [Sports and Modern Education: A History of French Philosophy of Physical Education], Shiô-tosho, 1999
  • Japan Olympic Academy (ed), Pocket-ban Olympic Jiten [Pocket sized Olympic Dictionary], Raku, 2008
  • Seïtan 150 Shûnen Kinen Shuppan Iinkai [Committee for Commemorative Publication for the 150 years anniversary of birth] (ed), Kigaï to Kôdô no Kyoïku-sha Kano Jigoro [Jigoro Kano, the passionate and active educator], University of Tsukuba Press, 2011

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